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About Chris Schluep

Chris Schluep spent more than a dozen years editing books in New York before moving west. He takes great pride in reading a wide range of books and connecting interested readers with the books they'll love. Chris lives in Seattle with his wife and son, and he feels like he may have one of the best jobs in the world.

Posts by Chris

Jeff VanderMeer Drops by Amazon to Talk About "Annihilation"

51H2WZitH0L._BO2,204,203,200Jeff VanderMeer, author and Omnivoracious contributor, stopped by Seattle on his recent book tour. Having worked with him extensively on many Omni posts, and having read a few of his books (try City of Saints and Madmen), including his latest novel Annihilation, I was excited to sit down with him.

Annihilation, which was a Best Book of the Month for February, is one of those books that will either draw you in from the start or spit you out confused and reeling. Four women--simply known as the Psychologist, the Surveyor, the Anthropologist, and the Biologist--are sent on the twelfth expedition to a mysterious region simply known as Area X. From there the mysteries multiply, as VanderMeer leads us on an adventure deeper into the unknown. The Los Angeles Times had this to say about the book: "'Annihilation,' in which the educated and analytical similarly meets up with the inhuman, is a clear triumph for Vandermeer, who after numerous works of genre fiction has suddenly transcended genre with a compelling, elegant and existential story of far broader appeal."

There are two more books to follow in the Southern Reach trilogy. And you won't have to wait long--Authority is scheduled to be released in May, and Acceptance will publish in September.

YA Wednesday: Margaret Stohl Interviews Seth Fishman, Author of "The Well's End"

Well's EndAuthor Seth Fishman's new Young Adult novel The Well's End was published yesterday, and it's getting great reviews. Booklist gave The Well's End a starred review, calling it "a fast-paced, thrilling adventure story that begs for a sequel."

International best-selling writer Margaret Stohl, co-author of Beautiful Creatures, caught up with Seth to generally fawn over the book and ask him some questions.


Seth Fishman: First of all, my biggest thanks for these really amazingly fun and original interview questions.  I’ve long loved your books, and it’s hard to imagine you reading mine and enjoying. What an honor!

Margaret Stohl: Seth, your brain = a deeply dark place. Comparable to, say, a well. True or False? Discuss.

SF: Truish! I’d like to think that if you shine a light into my brain, you find that it isn’t so scary, or that it’s full of nice things, like water or wishes. That said, I often set the tone for The Well’s End by imagining what it would be like to be stuck down a well.  The cold, the smell, the darkness, the fear. My mind and wells = best friends.

MS: When a little girl falls down a well and years later, finds herself getting in once again over her head—this time in the middle of a conspiracy involving a killer virus, her father, and her school—I get the feeling this story didn’t come from a dream about sparkly vampires, Seth. How did it come to you?

SF: I like all sorts of vampires, but when I set out to write this book, I wanted to ground the story in as much terrifying reality as possible. So I started with the girl who fell down the well, loosely based on ‘Baby Jessica’ McClure, who really did fall down a well in my hometown when I was a kid. Once I had this backstory in place, I wanted to invite the reader to become so confident in the reality of the book’s world that when it tilts, they don’t even notice (or, at least, feel that it’s very naturally part of the ride).

MS: The Well’s End is an adrenaline rush from start to finish. Was that the plan, or do you just like to torment high school students? When you read, are you also an adrenaline junkie?

SF: Ha, very kind of you to say! Maybe the torture comes as payback for all the years I was a camp counselor. I’d say that I worked very hard with my editor on the pacing of the book, though I didn’t map out cliffhanger chapter endings or anything like that. Still, considering that the [semi-SPOILER] virus moved pretty quickly, if I wanted to have anyone living by the end of the book, I had to keep the pedal to the floor. The challenge, I suppose, was building legit, fleshed characters while they were constantly running for their lives. As to reading, I love a good thriller or adrenaline push (like Pierce Brown’s Red Rising or Marie Lu’s Legend series) but I’m just as much a fan of the slower literary (David Mitchell or Gabriel Garcia Marquez being favorites). Depends on the mood, on where I’m reading them, and on whether I want to get any sleep!

MS: Bones break. Bullets fly. Parents and students are disposed of. And I’m reading your book on a flight home from Tokyo, having Battle Royale flashbacks. Did you know you were going to have to shed a lot of blood to take Mia on her journey from just being the girl who fell down the well?

SF: I’m not afraid of killing off characters. In fact, I believe one of the reasons Game of Thrones is so compelling and ‘fresh’ is that George R.R. Martin kills off major characters left and right. This raises the stakes in the book and keeps the reader on his/her toes. It also is a real challenge that I love: the author has to be able to create more than just one character and rely on them. Battle Royale still haunts me; I believe having The Well’s End haunt someone would be the height of compliment. 

MS: Your main character, Mia, is a competitive swimmer thrust into the role of survivalist. She talks about forcing herself to “dive in,” as an exercise in conquering her own fears. Yet your book is full of things to be very, very afraid of, right?

SF: I couldn’t help but play with the juxtaposition, really. The idea that Mia was petrified of water and darkness because of some freak childhood accident did nothing to stop me from putting ‘monsters’ in the water and the dark. In this case, her fears were justified.

MS: So can fears really ever be conquered? Or do they just give way to new fears? What’s more frightening – trusting people or diving into the unknown?

SF: I’m really fascinated by the role fear plays in the actions we all take, every day. For Mia, I wanted her fears to both hinder and aid, to be very much part of her identity. At the same time, I don’t think facing fears is easy; you don’t have a fear of heights and go skydiving once and get cured, you’re still scared of height, just more able to deal with the phobia. I wanted fear to push Mia, and I wanted her to not always be rewarded. Sometimes the answer isn’t to dive right in. And if you do, you might not always like what you find. 

That said, I think trust is one of the greatest characteristics of humanity. When we learn to trust someone, they become a part of ourselves. They know our needs and fears and our weaknesses. If you travel in a group, and you trust those people, suddenly everyone becomes smarter faster stronger. 

MS: Diving in seems almost like the best way to describe the narrative structure of your book, Seth. Maybe that’s also an apt way to describe a debut novel, from a successful literary agent no less. What made you dive in as a writer, here and now?

SF: A ‘debut author’ is a deceptive term. Most writers have books and stories in drawers that have never seen the light of a bookstore shelf. I’ve been writing as a hobby since I was fourteen, and The Well’s End was the culmination of years of false starts and craft-building. Debuts are really just a longtime writer’s chance to finally meet an audience. Despite the fact that I represent some amazing authors as a literary agent, and have seen them go through publications of their own books, this still feels entirely new and exciting and, in some ways, terrifying.

MS: I really loved your book: what else should I read? What goes next to The Well’s End on your imaginary shelf? For that matter, what would Mia Kish’s favorite books be?

SF: That’s a great question (and I’m so glad you loved the book)! It’s hard for me not to think of the books that influenced me when I was a teenager when creating Mia, which is, I understand, potentially problematic to a modern audience, so I’d say she’d have a nice mix. Jitterbug Perfume by Tom Robbins, Hardboiled Wonderland and the End of the World by Haruki Murakami, Ender’s Game by Orson Scott Card (I know, I know, borrow someone’s copy or go to the library), and aside from the two titles mentioned above, Laini Taylor and Leigh Bardugo and, ahem, a certain Icons series are really wonderful. Finally, I’d think that Mia would be open to having amazing graphic novels like Saga by Brian K. Vaughn or Fables by Bill Willingham. If you want a good thriller, read Lexicon by Max Barry (though I don’t see that on Mia’s shelf, not as much as, say Prep or The Secret History).

MS: When can we get our hands on the next one?

SF: Ha. Ask my editor! She has it in her hands as we speak! Should be out one year after The Well’s End.



Guy Kawasaki Reviews Barry Eisler’s "Graveyard of Memories"

51OnO463a2LGuy Kawasaki is the author of APE: Author, Publisher, Entrepreneur; What the Plus!; Enchantment; and nine other books. Previously, he was the chief evangelist of Apple. Kawasaki has a BA from Stanford University and an MBA from UCLA as well as an honorary doctorate from Babson College.


There are some things in life that you don’t want to end. Massages, Thanksgiving dinner, and Steve Jobs product introductions are in this group. If you’re into thrillers, I would add Graveyard of Memories.

Seriously, this book is insanely great—especially if you’re a Japanese-American like me who isn’t offended by a racial stereotype of stone-cold, martial-arts, samurai-assassin Japanese people. Steve Jobs taught me that it’s better to be feared than loved, anyway.

If you want to savor Graveyard for as long as possible, read every article and watch every video that Barry included in the Acknowledgments before you read the book. By doing this, you’ll learn about paraplegic sex, gun versus knife killing range, flying-triangle strangles, and killing people by electrocution according to Dartmouth.

Then, when you read the book, you’ll have a much better appreciation of what’s going on. It’s like the difference between drinking regular coffee and artisanal coffee—which is another thing you’ll learn about. Rain makes all this action Child’s play. After I read Graveyard, I wanted to go on a tour of Tokyo to visit all the spots that John Rain hung out—up for Raincaching, anyone?

And be sure to pay attention to a character called Gai Kawasaki because he isn’t killed off. Like the Terminator, maybe he’ll be back. Come to think of it, What are the odds that Barry would name a character Gai Kawasaki? I am just so happy that he didn’t name the medical student in the morgue Gai Kawasaki…you’ll see why.

"The Southern Reach Trilogy: Annihilation" by Jeff VanderMeer

51iOjUPf6tLJeff VanderMeer has been a longtime contributor to, so when we heard he had a new book coming out, we were excited to read it. Of course, there's always that concern of "what if it's not that good?" But in this case, those concerns quickly flew out the window. It's even a Best of the Month selection for February.

Below is a photo-essay from Jeff. Enjoy.


This year, FSG is publishing my Southern Reach trilogy, starting with Annihilation this month, then Authority in May and Acceptance in September. The trilogy chronicles the attempts of a secret government agency, the Southern Reach, to decipher the meaning of a place called Area X. For thirty years, Area X has remained mysterious, remote, and concealed by the government—to all appearances pristine wilderness. For thirty years, too, the Southern Reach has sent expeditions into Area X to try to discover the truth. Some expeditions have suffered terrible consequences. Others have reported nothing out of the ordinary.

The first novel, Annihilation tells the story of the twelfth expedition—through the eyes of a nameless biologist. Their mission is to chart the wilderness, take samples, and expand the Southern Reach’s understanding of Area X. But they soon find out that the information given to them about Area X is incomplete or inaccurate, and that they are being manipulated by forces both strange and all too familiar. An old abandoned lighthouse and a tunnel plunging into the ground hold secrets none of them are prepared to face. A moaning in the distance at dusk seems to have no natural cause.

The second novel, Authority, examines the problem of Area X from within the Southern Reach, through the eyes of John Rodriguez, aka “Control,” who takes over as director of the agency and begins to investigate the fate of the twelfth expedition. Acceptance, the third novel, chronicles the Southern Reach’s increasingly desperate efforts to find answers while bringing the reader back into Area X, albeit under much-changed circumstances.

The exact location of Area X is left vague, but it’s based in part on my hiking in North Florida’s Panhandle region, much of which contains a rich ecosystem of swamp, marsh, pine forest, lakes, and coastal habitats. It’s a place you can get lost in, which is rare these days, and it’s unbelievably beautiful as well. There actually is a lighthouse out at the St. Marks’ Wildlife Refuge, too.

So when Omni asked if I’d give readers some teasing glimpses into the Southern Reach and Area X, I thought it made sense to pair a brief abridged excerpt from each novel with images from the region—all of which are by Tallahassee photographer Riko Carrion.

From Annihilation: The biologist, setting off for the lighthouse after the disappearance of two expedition members…

“Now a strange mood took hold of me, as I walked silent and alone through the last of the pines and the cypress knees…It was as if I traveled through the landscape with the sound of an expressive and intense aria playing in my ears. Everything was imbued with emotion, awash in it, and I was no longer a biologist but somehow the crest of a wave building and building but never crashing to shore. I saw with such new eyes the transition to the marsh, the salt flats. As the trail became a raised berm, dull, algae-choked lakes spread out to the right and a canal flanked it on the left. Rough channels  of water meandered out in a maze through a forest of reeds…islands, oases of wind-contorted trees, appeared in the distance like sudden revelations...The quality of light upon this habitat, the stillness of it all, the sense of waiting, brought me halfway to a kind of ecstasy.”


From Authority: The director of the Southern Reach, watching the video from a failed expedition into Area X…

The wreckage of the old walls formed deeper shadows against the sky, and he could just see the wide line that was the stone path running through. In the foreground, a woman, the expedition leader, was shouting, “Get her to stop!” Her face was made a mask by the light from the recorder and the way it formed such severe shadows around her eyes and mouth. Opposite, across a kind of crude fire-burned picnic table a woman, the expedition leader, shouted “Get her to stop!” “Please stop!” “Please stop!” A lurch and spin of the camera and then it steadied. The person holding the camera began to hyperventilate, and Control recognized the sound he had heard before was a kind of whispered breathing with a shallow rattle threading through it. Not the wind at all. The woman on the left of the screen then stopped shouting and stared into the camera. The woman on the right also stopped shouting, stared into the camera. An identical fear and pleading and confusion radiated from the masks of their faces toward him, from so far away, from so many years away. He could not distinguish between the two manifestations, not in that murky light.

Then, sitting bolt upright, even knowing what was to come, Control realized it was not dusk that had robbed the setting behind them of any hint of color. It was more as if something had interceded on the landscape, something so incredibly large that its edges were well beyond the camera’s lens. In the last second of the videotape, the two women still frozen and staring, the backdrop seemed to shift and keep shifting…


From Acceptance, an expedition passing by the lighthouse once more…

The lighthouse rose from fog and reflections like a mirror of itself, the beach gray and cold, the sand rasping against the hull of the boat as they abandoned it in the shallows. The waves came in small and half-curling like the froth of malformed questions. The lighthouse did not resemble her memory of it, for its sides had been scoured by fire, discoloration extending all the way to the top, where the lens, the light within, lay extinguished. The fire had erupted from the landing windows as well, and in combination with the bits of broken glass, and all of the other talismans human beings had rendered up to it over the years, gave the lighthouse the appearance of something shamanistic. Even the haphazard wall put up by long-dead defenders contributed to the impression that it was hiding, in a useless attempt to fit in with its surroundings. Reduced now to a daymark for their boat, the simplest of its functions, the one task that, unperformed, made a lighthouse no longer of use to anyone. “Burned by the border commander,” they had been told. “Burned because they didn’t understand it—and the journals with it.”

Did the journals remain regardless, reconstituted, were they now to enter, walk up into the light room, undo the trap door, stare down as had the biologist? Would the reflected light from those frozen accounts irradiate their thoughts, contaminate their dreams, forever trapped by that vision? Or would they find just a mountain of ashes? She did not want to find out.


100 Books to Read in a Lifetime, a List from the Amazon Editors

We've spent the last few months having some very interesting meetings....

When we got the idea to put together a list of 100 Books to Read in a Lifetime, we thought "how hard could it be?" Answer: it's extremely difficult to winnow down a lifetime of reading into 100 books.

But after a lot of discussion, pleading, reading, rereading, and sometimes outright arguing, we now have our list. You can see it here.

There's also an opportunity for you to join the conversation over at Goodreads, where readers are adding their own favorites and voting on the list that's accumulating. There's some interesting crossover between the two lists, and many of the popular readers' picks are books that we struggled over while creating our list. More on that at another time.

Here's our Editorial Director, Sara Nelson, talking to the Huffington Post about 100 Books to Read in a Lifetime. We know you won't agree with all our picks. It's inevitable. But it's also half the fun.


Bernard Cornwell, Author of "The Pagan Lord," Muses on the Path to Christianity

51Ru+zFMMPLEditor's note: Bernard Cornwell's The Pagan Lord is the seventh book in his Saxon Tales series, which started in 2004 with The Last Kingdom. Cornwell recently sent us this essay, in which he examines the spread of Christianity through Europe. It's not the typical Christmas story, but it will be an interesting read for some of our readers.

He was the ‘red ravager’, described as ‘cruel from a child’, a warlord, a rapist, a thief, a murderer and an inveterate enemy of the church.  He is also one of our greatest heroes, so how did King Arthur turn from being a villain into a shining exemplar of Christian chivalry? The answer is syncretism, the merging of religious beliefs. The early saints’ lives of the Celtic church depicted Arthur as a murderous pagan, but unable to eradicate him from popular legend the church simply recruited him so that instead of searching for Bran’s cauldron he pursues the Holy Grail, and instead of being a persecutor of Christians he becomes their champion.

We live in a world of syncretism. The names of January, March, April, May and June all derive from pagan gods, as do the names of our days. We knock on wood, avoid sitting thirteen to dinner, give presents at Christmas and millions believe their destiny is foretold by the stars. Christianity attempted to eradicate such paganism, yet the old heathen names, traditions and beliefs persist like junk DNA in our cultural genome. How on earth did that happen? 

A better question might be why our European ancestors became Christian in the first place. A believer would surely answer that the manifold truth of the religion prevailed over ignorant superstition, but the very persistence of those superstitions suggests that the answer is not quite that simple.  A Roman, before the era of Christianity, would have accepted that there were many gods and seen nothing strange in worshipping one, two or even three hundred of them, but he or she would have found it very odd indeed to be told there was only one god, and that this sole deity was, above all things, jealous.  So how did an intolerant monotheism win out against the tolerant polytheism that had prevailed for so long?

CornwellOne answer is that Christianity proved more profitable. There is a telling story about King Edwin of Northumbria, a powerful pagan who ruled what is now northern England and southern Scotland in the 7th Century. He probably worshipped the Norse gods like Thor and Woden, but at some point he encountered a Christian missionary who suggested that success in war and material prosperity would follow a conversion. Edwin put that to the test and god came through with a battlefield triumph and massive amounts of plunder. The king’s chief pagan priest told Edwin that the old gods had never shown such favor and that Northumbria should therefore convert, which it duly did. The story echoes the experience of Constantine, the Roman Emperor who converted because the Christian god gave him victory over Maxentius. It is a common enough tale. In the early 10th Century a Viking named Hrolf took land in what is now Normandy and the treaty confirming his possession insisted he became a Christian. ‘Paris,’ Henry IV of France declared when he changed from Protestant to Catholic, ‘is worth a mass.’  The Duchy of Normandy (which led to the throne of England) proved well worth a mass too.

The early Christian missionaries targeted such rulers. The17th century Treaty of Westphalia brought peace to war-torn Europe with the famous settlement of cuius regio, eius religio which we might translate as ‘his state, his religion’.  That, of course, decided between Catholic and Protestant, but it applied in early mediaeval Europe too. Convert the king and the king would put pressure on his subjects to conform. Pope Gregory the Great, the 6th Century pontiff, had no qualms about advising Christian magnates to put up their tenants’ rents if they resisted conversion. There is a deal of self-interest here. Christianity managed to persuade ruler after ruler that material wealth and martial victory would be theirs if they changed religion, but plainly the Christian god was not going to give every ruler victory nor spread the wealth evenly, so a second lure was needed; magic. The Christians disdained to call it magic, though if we saw someone hang their cloak on a sunbeam, as Saint Brigid did, we might be forgiven for suspecting trickery. The early church annals are replete with such miracles; the dead are raised, the sick healed, crops saved, and wonders performed, all proving that Christian magic was far more powerful than pagan sorcery. And persecution of rival sorcery went on well into the seventeenth century, as the people of Salem learned to their discomfort.

51PrYqbtDHLYet the church never entirely defeated paganism. They co-opted it when they could by building their churches on the sites of pagan shrines and transmuting pagan celebrations into Christian feasts. Samhain, the Celtic day of the dead when food and drink were put at the door to avert vengeance, was turned into Halloween’s trick or treat.  The Venerable Bede, writing sometime around 700 AD, recorded the spring-time feast celebrating Eostre, a goddess of fertility. Some scholars contend that the name Easter refers to a point of the compass, but Bede, closer than they to the struggle between Christianity and paganism, makes the connection explicit. Easter, Christianity’s most joyous and sacred festival, is named for a pagan goddess, while the giving of Christmas gifts is most likely a holdover from Saturnalia, the Roman midwinter celebration.  So people had to be seduced into the new religion by proof that it was more profitable than the old, and by co-opting the old when it proved too powerful to destroy.

There is a common Christian complaint that crass materialism undermines our spirituality, but perhaps the complainants should remember that such materialism was used to spread the gospel in the first place. And, to ask Yeats’s famous question, what rough beast is slouching toward Bethlehem to be born? Look for a beast that offers wonders and, more importantly, material benefits. But whatever comes Wednesday will still remain Woden’s day and Thursday will forever belong to Thor. The pagan gods are with us still.

Bernard Cornwell was born in London and now lives in the United States. In addition to his hugely successful Sharpe novels, he is the author of the Starbuck Chronicles, the Warlord trilogy, the Grail Quest series, the Alfred series, and the Saxon Tales series.  His newest novel is The Pagan Lord (Harper, January 7, 2014).

Oprah's Book Club 2.0: "The Invention of Wings" by Sue Monk Kidd

The_Invention_of_Wings3Oprah Winfrey has announced her next pick in Oprah's Book Club 2.0!

The book is The Invention of Wings by Sue Monk Kidd, the celebrated author of The Secret Life of Bees.

Set in the early 19th century, The Invention of Wings revolves around two women: Hetty "Handful" Grimke, a slave girl living in Charleston, and the Grimke's young daughter, Sarah. The book begins on Sarah's eleventh birthday, when she is given ownership of ten-year-old Handful. 

Based on the real life Grimke sisters, who defied great odds to help launch the abolition movement in the United States, this is a marvelous novel. The story spans thirty five years, as the lives of Handful and Sarah become intertwined in a complex dance of two women striving for lives of their own, shaping each other's destinies, marked by guilt, estrangement, and the search for authenticity in defiance of social norms.

Here's Oprah herself on The Invention of Wings:


Sara Says: Oprah's New Book Club Pick is Same Old Song, Only Better


It's All Good: A Look at the Goodreads Choice Awards

Every year the good people at Goodreads ask their readers to vote in a variety of categories--culminating in early December with the announcement of the Goodreads Choice Awards winners--and every year the program seems to get bigger and bigger. During the season when anyone with any book authority (including the Amazon Editors) comes out with a Best-of list, the Choice Awards truly represent the people's choice.

Here's a look at some of the winners.

  • BrownKhaled Hosseini's wonderful And The Mountains Echoed was the top pick in fiction. For the record, the Amazon Editors ranked it at #2 in our Best Books of 2013.
  • Dan Brown's Inferno was one of the top sellers of the year at Amazon, so it's no surprise that it landed at #1 in Mystery & Thrillers.
  • The Choice Awards winner in Historical Fiction was another favorite of the Amazon Editors. Kate Atkinson's Life After Life was our top pick for Best Books of the Year So Far (which came out in June). It's nice to see that the people agree.

You can see all the Goodreads Choice Awards winners here.

Let us know your favorite read of the year.


Best Books of 2013: Business & Investing

BOTY13_B&IA lot of fine business books were published this year. Big Data helped to popularize one of the catchiest business terms of the year. Who Owns the Future? stirred our thoughts on the relationship between technology and culture. But one book really took the prize.

Before that, some other highlights:

Even two famous basketball coaches got into the game:

Sandberg._V374013687_But the 500 pound gorilla of the year in business books was Lean In, in which Sheryl Sandberg urges women to stop apologizing for their success, while encouraging women (and men) to re-examine their business and home relationships. Not only was it one of the top business books of the year, it was one of the top books of the year. Maybe it's more like an 800 pound gorilla.

For more on Lean In, see Sara Nelson's Some Things You Might Not Know About Sheryl Sandberg.

For more on the Best Books of 2013, go here.


Nelson Mandela Dead at 95

MandelaNelson Mandela, one of the most iconic figures of our time, has died. He was 95 years old.

Mandela had not appeared publicly since 2010 when he attended the World Cup final in Johannesburg, the first held on the African continent. He remained a paragon of dignity and humanism, even as he quietly spent his final years in his childhood home in the nation's Eastern Cape Province. 

Born on July 18, 1918, Mandela was eventually expelled from University College of Fort Hare for protesting apartheid, the system that he would ultimately see overthrown. He helped to form the youth league of the National African Congress, pushing for that body to take more radical steps against the white minority South African government. In 1956, he was charged with high treason; following a five-year trial, he was acquited. The ANC's tactics grew more militant over time, a process that he encouraged, and in 1964 he was sentenced to life in prison.

At the trial, he made this statement: "I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die."

He would spend 27 years in incarceration before finally being set free.

On February 11th, 1990, Mandela walked out of prison to shouts and applause, his fist raised above his head. He was elected President of South Africa in 1994, promising to serve only one term, which he completed in 1999. Mandela's politics stressed forgiveness over vengeance, and as president he famously established the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate crimes committed under apartheid. Bishop Desmond Tutu was appointed chair to the Commission, which granted individual amnesty in exchange for testimony about apartheid-era crimes.

After retiring from politics, he continued to work on the global stage, championing human rights and world peace, and taking up the fight against AIDS.

His death was announced by South African President Jacob Zuma on late Thursday, who said of him, "What made Nelson Mandela great was precisely what made him human. We saw in him what we seek in ourselves."


Omnivoracious™ Contributors

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